William Apess of the Pequot Indian Tribe has been called the Frederick Douglass of Native Americans. He challenged the powers of his day using the pen, the pulpit, and protest.
Another story of Native American resilience comes to life through Black Elk, a Lakota medicine man and Catholic preacher. Joe Jackson wrote a biography of Black Elk, the spiritual leader who was born in 1863 and died at Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. Black Elk’s writings were embraced years later by the counter culture in the 1960’s and 1970’s.